Martinez, Julia, 2010, The Chinese trade in women and children from Northern Vietnam, in J. Baffie, G. Beullier & P. Le Roux (eds), The Trade in Human Beings for Sex in Southeast Asia, White Lotus Press, Bangkok. pp. 47-57.
Prostitution in late 19th century Asia was described by Jim Warren as "a multimillion- dollar network linking remote villages in rural China and Japan with ports such as Nagasaki and Canton to the dockside in Hong Kong and brothels in Singapore". His study of the trade in women and children to Singapore demonstrates the central role of Chinese merchants and their networks in coordinating trafficking in this period. While much of the literature on historical prostitution centers on British colonial possessions, there is very little written on connections into Indochina. This chapter examines the history of the Chinese trade in women and children from northern Vietnam or Tonkin, as the then French Protectorate was known. It follows the paths of traffic from the rural villages of the Red River delta and the port cities of Haiphong and Hanoi, to the ports and provinces of China.