This chapccr aims to build conceptua11y upon the accounts of young poopIe's actions in specific rural settings outlined in the proceeding chapters. like the wider body of ongoing reaearh on young people's everyday lives across the world, the foregoing chapters clearly demonstrate how the shift to viewing young people as individuals with the capacity to act and shape their own lives, i.e. to have agency, rather than seeing children simply 'adults in training' (Dunne 1980), passive and innocent dependants, or victims' has become firmly established in children's and youth studies. This volume illustrates some of the many ways in which young people are creative and competent actors in a diversity of rural settings across Minority and Majority worlds. In this chapter we consider the agency which yonng people show in their everyday rural lives, identifying different spheres and types of agency as well as the limits to agency; we conclude with some suggestions for future research directions. What follows outlines conceptual frameworks for addressing (and critiquing) agency in present and future research on rural young people.