Martinez, Julia T., 2010, The Chinese trade in women and children from Northern Vietnam, in J. Baffie, G. Beullier & P. Le Roux (eds), The Trade in Human Beings for Sex in Southeast Asia, White Lotus Press(Bangkok), 47-57.
The trade in women and children from Vietnam was primarily organised by Chinese merchants with the aid of Vietnamese and Chinese women on the ground. The use of German and English flag steamships suggests that Europeans were also in some way connected to trafficking. Around the time of 1907 there was a shift in the nature of trafficking with greater evidence for outright kidnapping. By the 1910s as French authorities attempted to stem the trade on steamships traffickers were able to use other methods of transport including fishing vessels and overland routes.