Wolfers, Edward P., 2009, Pre-occupation, occupation, and peace: international peace missions in Bougainville, Papua New Guinea, 1997-2005, in C. De Matos & R. Gerster (Eds.), Occupying the "other": Australia and military occupations from Japan to Iraq, Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 225-248.
Intemational peacekeeping, observer, and monitoring missions (hereafter refened to as "peace missions") tend to differ from military occupations in a number of significant ways. Their deployment depends on the consent of the states where they are located and operate and, in the case of civil war situations, the parties to the previous armed or otherwise violent conflict: they are not imposed (and do not need the equivalent of a Quisling or a Petain to legitimate their presence). They frequently include, and are sometimes made up entirely of, civilian personnel. They employ arms only in self-defence, or are sometimes unarmed and even without ready access to protection or rescue by armed personnel. They remain only as long as the host state(s) where tlrey are deployed-and, in the case of civil wars, the other parties to the previously threatening or actual conflict-agree that they should. The same is generally true of missions engaged in post-conflict peace-building. Election observation and monitoring missions are generally deployed for strictly defined purposes are described as "multidimensional". Missions of all types may evolve as opportunities and needs arise, and as mandates and resources allow.