Artificial muscles based on polypyrrole/carbon nanotube laminates
A novel method for the periodical assembly of laminates of forest-drawn carbon nanotube (CNT) sheets and polypyrrole (PPy) is described. The method produces composite films in which the volume fraction and orientation of CNTs can be controlled. Actuator stroke and strength is increased and work capacity per cycle doubled when nanotube orientation is perpendicular to the actuation direction. Most importantly, these PPy/CNT laminates have dramatically decreased creep during actuation, which has been a major barrier for the application of PPy actuators.