Experimental and numerical research on full-scale high strength thin-walled rectangular steel slender tubes filled with high strength concrete has not been reported in the literature. In a companion paper, a new numerical model was presented that simulates the nonlinear inelastic behavior of uniaxially loaded high strength thin-walled rectangular concrete-filled steel tubular (CFST) slender beam-columns with local buckling effects. The progressive local and post-local buckling of thin steel tube walls under stress gradients was incorporated in the numerical model. This paper presents the verification of the numerical model developed and its applications to the investigation into the fundamental behavior of high strength thin-walled CFST slender beam-columns. Experimental ultimate strengths and load-deflection responses of CFST slender beam-columns tested by independent researchers are used to verify the accuracy of the numerical model. The verified numerical model is then utilized to investigate the effects of local buckling, column slenderness ratio, depth-to-thickness ratio, loading eccentricity ratio, concrete compressive strengths and steel yield strengths on the behavior of high strength thin-walled CFST slender beam-columns. It is demonstrated that the numerical model is accurate and efficient for determining the behavior of high strength thin-walled CFST slender beam-columns with local buckling effects. Numerical results presented in this study are useful for the development of composite design codes for high strength thin-walled rectangular CFST slender beam-columns.