Membrane fouling in the nanofiltration of landfill leachate and its impact on trace contaminant removal
Nanofiltration (NF) is an attractive option for the treatment oflandfill leachate. However, membrane fouling can be a major obstacle in theimplementation of this technology. In this study, bench-scale filtrationexperiments were carried out to study the fouling behaviour during the NF of asynthetic landfill leachate. The results indicate that calcium in combinationwith organic matter could play a major role in governing the fouling process.Membrane fouling depended on the calcium concentration in the feed solution.Moreover, the results also indicate a significant influence of membrane foulingon the retention of Bisphenol A (BPA). It was hypothesised that pore blockingand the presence of the fouling layer resulted in an enhanced sieving effect,which subsequently increased the retention of BPA. On the other hand, cakelayer enhanced concentration polarisation could hinder BPA from backdiffusing into the bulk solution, which would eventually result in a lower BPAretention.