Saturated infilled joints can contribute to the instability of rock masses during undrained shearing. This paper reports an experimental investigation into the effect of the overconsolidation of infilled rough joints on undrained shear behaviour. A revised model is presented for predicting the shear strength of rough infilled joints on the basis of experimental tests carried out on idealised sawtoothed joints with natural silty clay as the infill material. Tests were conducted under consolidated undrained conditions in a high-pressure triaxial apparatus on joints having a dip angle of 608. Pore pressure development in the infill materials was monitored. The results show that the effect of asperities on shear strength is significant up to a critical asperity height to infill thickness ratio (t/a), whereas the shear behaviour is controlled by the infill alone beyond this critical value. The proposed model for predicting the shear strength of rough infilled joints describes how the OCR influences the shear strength, pore water pressure development, and critical t/a ratio.