Critical state behaviour of granular materials from isotropic and rebounded paths: DEM simulations
This paper presents the results of numerical simulations using the three-dimensional discrete element method (DEM) on the critical state behaviour of isotropically compressed and rebounded assemblies of granular materials. Drained and undrained (constant volume) numerical simulations were carried out. From these numerical simulations of drained and undrained tests, it has been shown that the steady state is same as the critical state. Critical state for both isotropically compressed and rebounded assemblies form unique curved line that can be approximated by a bilinear line as proposed by Been et al. [Géotechnique 41(3): 365–381, 1991]. Further more, evolution of the internal variables such as average coordination number and induced anisotropy coefficients during shear deformation has been studied.