Sonochemical synthesis of Ti02 nanoparticles on graphene for use as photocatalyst
Using ultrasonication we succeed in a controlled incorporation of TiO2 nanoparticles on the graphene layers homogeneously in a few hours. The average size of the TiO2 nanoparticles was controlled at around 4–5 nm on the sheets without using any surfactant, which is attributed to the pyrolysis and condensation of the dissolved TiCl4 into TiO2 by ultrasonic waves. The photocatalytic activity of the resultant graphene–TiO2 composites containing 25 wt.% TiO2 is better than that of commercial pure TiO2. This is partly due to the extremely small size of the TiO2 nanoparticles and partly due to the graphene–TiO2 composite structure consisting of homogeneous dispersion of crystalline TiO2 nanoparticles on the graphene sheets. As the graphene in the composites has a very good contact with the TiO2 nanoparticles it enhances the photo-electron conversion of TiO2 by reducing the recombination of photo-generated electron–hole pairs.