Title

Rapid synthesis of binary -NiSB-NiS by microwave autoclave for rechargeable lithium batteries

RIS ID

43962

Publication Details

Idris, N. Hayati., Rahman, M., Chou, S., Wang, J., Wexler, D. Liu, H. (2011). Rapid synthesis of binary -NiS-NiS by microwave autoclave for rechargeable lithium batteries. Electrochimica Acta, 58 (1), 456-462.

Abstract

To reduce the reaction time, electrical energy consumption, and cost, binary α-NiS–β-NiS has been synthesized by a rapid, one-pot, hydrothermal autoclave microwave method within 15 min at temperatures of 160–180 °C. The microstructure and morphology of the α-NiS–β-NiS products were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). At 140 °C, pure hexagonal NiAs-type α-NiS phase was identified from the XRD patterns. With increasing reaction temperature (160–180 °C), the XRD evidence indicates that an increasing fraction of rhombohedral millerite-like β-NiS is formed as a secondary phase. The α-NiS–β-NiS sample synthesized at 160 °C yielded good electrochemical performance in term of high reversible capacity (320 mAh g−1 at 0.1C up to 100 cycles). Even at high rates, the sample operated at a good fraction of its capacity. The likely contributing factor to the superior electrochemical performance of the α-NiS–β-NiS sample could be related to the improved morphology. TEM imaging confirmed that needle-like protrusions connect the clusters of α-NiS particles, and the individual protrusions indicated a very high surface area including folded sheet morphology, which helps to dissipate the surface accumulation of Li+ ions and facilitate rapid mobility. These factors help to enhance the amount of lithium intercalated within the material.

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Link to publisher version (DOI)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2011.09.066