Analysis of composite beams in the hogging moment regions using a mixed finite element formulation
Cracking of the concrete slab in the hogging moment region decreases the global stiffness of composite steel–concrete structures and also reduces the effect of continuity, thus making the structural behaviour highly nonlinear even for low stress levels. In this paper, the behaviour of continuous composite beams with discrete shear connection is investigated using a nonlinear mixed finite element model. The model includes appropriate nonlinear constitutive relationships for the concrete, the steel and tension stiffening effect. Furthermore, the discrete nature of the shear connection is embedded in the model and the tension stiffening effects are introduced in the analysis by using a concrete constitutive model proposed in the CEB-FIB Model Code 1990 which incorporates embedded steel. Special attention is paid to the hogging moment regions, where cracking occurs. Comparisons between the numerical analyses and experimental results in the current literature are undertaken to validate the accuracy of the model. Furthermore, a parametric study is carried out to study the influence of span length and degree of shear connection on the strength and ductility of continuous composite beams.