This study evaluated micropollutants removal and membrane fouling behaviour of a hybrid moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactor (MBBR-MBR) system at four different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) (24, 18, 12 and 6 h). The results revealed that HRT of 18 h was the optimal condition regarding the removal of most selected micropollutants. As the primary removal mechanism in the hybrid system was biodegradation, the attached growth pattern was desirable for enriching slow growing bacteria and developing a diversity of biocoenosis. Thus, the efficient removal of micropollutants was obtained. In terms of membrane fouling propensity analysis, a longer HRT (e.g. HRTs of 24 and 18 h) could significantly mitigate membrane fouling when compared with the shortest HRT of 6 h. Hence, enhanced system performance could be achieved when the MBBR-MBR system was operated at HRT of 18 h.
Available for download on Friday, September 20, 2019