Effects of heat accumulation on the arc characteristics and metal transfer behavior in Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing of Ti6Al4V
Wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) offers a promising alternative to traditional subtractive manufacturing of metallic components, particularly in the case of large Ti6Al4V structures for the aerospace sector that feature high buy-to-fly ratios. This study investigates the influence of heat accumulation on bead formation, arc stability, and metal transfer behaviour during the manufacture of Ti6Al4V with the gas tungsten wire arc additive manufacturing (GT-WAAM) using localized gas shielding. An infrared pyrometer is used to measure the in-situ interpass temperature which is a key factor in determining the heat accumulation. Arc stability and metal transfer behaviour are monitored by means of a high speed camera. The results show that due to the various thermal dissipation paths along the building height, there exists a significant difference in temperature variation between substrate and in-situ layer. Owing to the influences of heat accumulation, the interlayer surface oxidation and bead geometries vary along the building direction, especially for the first few layers of the deposited wall, which lead to variation in arc shape and metal transfer behaviour. The research outcome provides a better understanding of the effects of heat accumulation on deposition stability during WAAM process, which benefits future process optimization and control.