Tilt bearing capacity of single-shear single-row bolted connections in cold-formed steel
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The major cold-formed steel code equations do not properly distinguish the tilt bearing failure mode of single-shear bolted connections without washers from the conventional bearing failure mode typical of double-shear connections. The tilt bearing failure is due to the bolt head punching through the sheet on the upstream side during tilting. Its capacity does not vary linearly with either the sheet thickness or the bolt diameter, and is affected by the sheet width. The relationships between the tilt bearing capacity and each of the three geometric variables are investigated through laboratory tests of 92 specimens composed of G450 sheet steels. The sheet thicknesses range from 1.5 to 3.0 mm, and for each thickness the sheet widths range from 50 to 120 mm. 12-mm and 16-mm bolts are used with hole clearances of 2 mm and 1 mm. On average the tilt bearing capacity varies with the square root of the bolt diameter.