Existing design codes and guidelines do not adequately address the design of concrete columns reinforced with fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) bars. Accordingly, a number of research studies investigated the behavior of FRP bar-reinforced concrete columns. However, the previous studies were limited to FRP bar-reinforced normal-strength concrete (NSC) columns. In this study, the behavior of glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) bar-reinforced high-strength concrete (HSC) specimens under different loading conditions was investigated in terms of axial load-carrying capacity, confinement efficiency of the GFRP helices, as well as the ductility and post-peak axial load-axial deformation response. The effects of the key parameters such as the type of the reinforcement (steel and GFRP), the pitch of the transverse helices, and the loading condition (concentric, eccentric, and four-point loading) on the performance of the specimens were investigated. It was observed that the GFRP bar-reinforced HSC specimen sustained similar axial load under concentric axial compression compared to its steel counterpart, but the efficiency of GFRP bar-reinforced HSC specimens in sustaining axial loads decreased with an increase in the axial load eccentricity. Direct replacement of steel reinforcement by the same amount of GFRP reinforcement in HSC specimens resulted in about 30% less ductility under concentric axial load. However, it was found that the ductility and post-peak axial load-axial deformation behavior of the GFRP bar-reinforced HSC specimens can be significantly improved by providing closely spaced helices.