Equal risk pricing under convex trading constraints
In an incomplete market model where convex trading constraints are imposed upon the underlying assets, it is no longer possible to obtain unique arbitrage-free prices for derivatives using standard replication arguments. Most existing derivative pricing approaches involve the selection of a suitable martingale measure or the optimisation of utility functions as well as risk measures from the perspective of a single trader. We propose a new and effective derivative pricing method, referred to as the equal risk pricing approach, for markets with convex trading constraints. The approach analyses the risk exposure of both the buyer and seller of the derivative, and seeks an equal risk price which evenly distributes the expected loss for both parties under optimal hedging. The existence and uniqueness of the equal risk price are established for both European and American options. Furthermore, if the trading constraints are removed, the equal risk price agrees with the standard arbitrage-free price. Finally, the equal risk pricing approach is applied to a constrained Black¿Scholes market model where short-selling is banned. In particular, simple pricing formulas are derived for European calls, European puts and American puts.