Most constitutive models can only simulate cumulative deformation after a limited number of cycles. However, railroad ballast usually experiences a large number of train passages that cause history-dependent long-term deformation. Fractional calculus is an efficient tool for modelling this phenomenon and therefore is incorporated into a constitutive model for predicting the cumulative deformation. The proposed model is further validated by comparing the model predictions with a series of corresponding experimental results. It is observed that the proposed model can realistically simulate the cumulative deformation of ballast from the onset of loading up to a large number of load cycles.
Available for download on Thursday, October 05, 2017