Measurement of ultra wideband channel coefficient through carbon dioxide in a multipath environment
This paper reports an investigation into the effect of carbon dioxide (CO2) gas on various ultra wideband channel coefficients. Measurements were conducted using apparatus consisting of a rubberized tube (6 mm diameter) connected to a source of CO2 or nitrogen (N2). For support, the rubberized tube was wrapped twice around a PVC pipe (160 mm diameter). The rubberized tube was flushed with 100% CO2 several times before being sealed in the tube at atmospheric pressure. In between measurement trials, removal of CO2 was achieved by flushing with pure nitrogen. A Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) using two identical directional antennas, with the wrapped section of tubing placed in-between, measured the channel coefficients over ultra wideband frequency spans of (0.3-8) GHz and (1-2) GHz. Significant magnitude differences between the baseline condition and that of CO2 were observed. We found the same signature of difference curves over the same frequency spans for different measurements. Difference in shape in the frequency band of (1-2) GHz is the same as that of the measured difference over 1-2 GHz in entire frequency band of 300 MHz to 8 GHz for the measured channel coefficients.