Optimal location of 3-component sensor for subsurface mapping in coal mine
In open pit coal mine, structural characterization of overburden rock mass and identification of the top surface of the mining seam play a major role in cast blasting operation as they have controlling influence on the blast performance and coal recovery process. Coal loss itself can amount to 8 to 10 % in open-cut coal mines dur-ing blasting operations of overburden rockmass if the coal layers are not identified properly. There is a clear need to delineate the top surfaces of coal seams which re-quire optimizing the location of the sensor units deployed for this purpose, especially when a single sensor unit is considered. The aim of the paper is to determine the optimal location of the 3-component sin-gle sensor unit in a borehole for subsurface mapping of coal layers using bit noise as a seismic source. As an example, a case study of open-pit geometry is considered wherein the strategraphic layers are assumed to be dipping at 15o. Five coal layers were considered which vary in thicknesses from 5m to 12m, and are spaced by inter-burden sandstones of various thicknesses. Full waveform forward modeling was car-ried out using a finite difference scheme to determine the optimal location of the 3-component sensor for identification of coal seams using an optimized wavelet as a drill-bit source. Forward modeling of seismic while drilling provided better insights to optimize the location of the sensor for better resolution of coal layers, and the modeling results will assist in the interpretation of field trial results
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