Orlikowski and Lacono (2001, p. 132) aptly argue that IT artifacts, particularly distributed network technology applications, including RFID, "do not provide the same material and cultural properties in each local time or context of use." A sociomaterial theory suggests the importance of adopting an integrative approach to study the social and material effects when examining IT benefits realization. While much has been written about the high potential of RFID as a new class of strategic enterprise information systems, the early adopters of RFID and researchers still have to answer the question on how to co-create the business value of RFID in supply chain environments. In this longitudinal case study of six firms involved in the research, development, implementation and use of an innovative RFID system, several critical barriers to co-creating RFID-enabled business value were identified. Finally, a sociomaterial approach to study RFID provided new insights into these barriers.