The aim of this study is to investigate the dose-deposition enhancement by alpha-particle irradiation in a cellular model using carbon and oxygen chemical compositions. A simulation study was performed to study dose enhancement due to carbon and oxygen for a human cell where Geant4 code used for the alpha-particle irradiation to the cellular phantom. The characteristic of dose enhancement in the nucleus and cytoplasm by the alpha-particle radiation was investigated based on concentrations of the carbon and oxygen compositions and was compared with those by gold and gadolinium.The results show that both the carbon and oxygen-induced dose enhancement was found to be more effective than those of gold and gadolinium. We found that the dose-enhancement effect was more dominant in the nucleus than in the cytoplasm if carbon or oxygen is uniformly distributed in a whole cell. In the condition that the added chemical composition was inserted only into the cytoplasm, the effect of the dose enhancement in nucleus becomes weak.We showed that high-stopping-power materials offer a more effective dose-enhancement efficacy and suggest that the carbon nanotubes and oxygenation are promising candidates for dose utilization as dose enhancement tools in particle therapy.