The demand for miniaturized parts and miniaturized semi-finished products is increasing nowadays, because microforming processes can improve production rate and minimize material waste due to less forming passes. However, traditional macro metal forming processes and modelling cannot be simply scaled down to produce miniaturized micro parts. In this study, a 2-Hi micro rolling mill has been successfully built. Experimental and numerical investigations on the micro rolling process for ultra-thin SUS 304 stainless steel strip have been conducted. The experimental results show that the micro rolling deformation of ultra-thin strip is influenced by size effect which results from the specimen size difference and this size effect is embodied in the flow stress and the friction coefficient. Analytical and finite element (FE) models in describing size effect related phenomena, such as flow stress, friction, rolling force and deformation behaviour, are proposed. The material surface constraint and the material deformation mode are critical in determination of material flow stress curve. The analysis of surface roughness evolution with rolling conditions has also been performed. The identified analysis on deformation mechanics provides a basis for further exploration of the material behaviour in plastic deformation of micro scale and the development of micro scale products via micro rolling.