Electrosprayed poly(vinylidene fluoride) microparticles for tissue engineering applications
Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) microparticles have been produced by electrospraying as a suitable substrate for tissue engineering applications. The influence of the polymer solution concentration and processing parameters, such as electric field, flow rate and inner needle diameter, on microparticle size and distribution has been studied. Polymer concentration is the most influential parameter on PVDF microparticle formation. Higher concentrations promote the formation of fibers while dilute or semi dilute concentrations favor the formation of PVDF microparticles with average diameters ranging between 0.81 ± 0.34 and 5.55 ± 2.34 μm. Once the formation of microparticles is achieved, no significant differences were found with the variation of other electrospray processing parameters. The electroactive β-phase content, between 63 and 74%, and the crystalline phase content, between 45 and 55%, are mainly independent of the processing parameters. Finally, MC-3T3-E1 cell adhesion on the PVDF microparticles is assessed, indicating their potential use for biomedical applications.