Congestion pricing with distance tolls: A review and new developments
This paper discusses the optimal toll design problem of cordon-based pricing with nonlinear distance tolls. In the previous studies, however, the cordon-based congestion pricing scheme usually takes the area-based pricing scheme or a flat toll charge method, which are not equitable and efficient. Thus, distance tolls are recently proposed by the researchers to be the new generation of cordon-based pricing. An in-depth review is first provided on the state-of-arts of the addressed topic. Then, using the similar bi-level formulation framework, some formulations are first provided in the context of stochastic user equilibrium, including four different formulations for the stochastic social optimum. 2014 American Society of Civil Engineers.