Simulations of PVD improved reconstituted specimens with surcharge, vacuum and heat preloading using equivalent vertical flow conditions
This paper presents the simulations of prefabricated vertical drain (PVD) improved reconstituted specimens with surcharge preloading (PVD), vacuum and surcharge with PVD (Vacuum-PVD), heat and surcharge with PVD (Thermo-PVD), heat plus vacuum and surcharge with PVD (Thermo-Vacuum-PVD) from large scale consolidometer tests in the laboratory. The flow conditions included equivalent vertical permeability (Kev) using back-calculated coefficient of horizontal consolidation (Ch). The simulation results indicated that the settlements obtained from equivalent vertical flows were similar at the same ratio of horizontal permeability at undisturbed zone to horizontal permeability at smear zone (Kh/Ks). The back-calculated Ch values were 1.93, 2.23, 4.17 and 4.38 m2/year as well as the corresponding Kh/Ks values were 3, 2.7, 1.4, and 1.1, for PVD, Vacuum-PVD, Thermo-PVD and Thermo-Vacuum PVD, respectively. The Ch values increased while the Kh/Ks values decreased corresponding to PVD, Vacuum-PVD, Thermo-PVD, and Thermo-Vacuum PVD, respectively.