TQM implementation in developing countries: A case study of the Libyan industrial sector
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the extent of total quality management (TQM) implementation in Libyan manufacturing companies (LMCs), and evaluates the impact of ISO 9000, and company size on its implementation. Design/methodology/approach: A framework, comprised of six TQM elements is proposed. Data was collected by means of a survey questionnaire distributed to those companies which agreed to participate. Findings: The results are the responses of a comprehensive survey which showed that Libyan companies are still struggling to effectively embark on TQM. The correlations among the six investigated TQM elements were positive and significant. This study also investigated whether the level of TQM implementation is influenced by contextual factors, including company size and ISO 9000 certification. It was found that there were no differences between TQM elements across ISO and non-ISO certified companies. The findings also revealed that there is no significant difference between small and medium (S&M)-sized companies (on each of the TQM elements) and those of large companies. Research limitations/implications: A longitudinal and wider research is required to investigate TQM implementation across private manufacturing and other companies. Originality/value: This analytical study is the first to determine the degree to which TQM has been adopted in the Libyan industrial sector (LIS). The results will contribute to the literature by examining the relationship between the proposed TQM elements, and investigating the impact of contextual factors (ISO 9000, company size) on each element of TQM. This research should prove valuable for the Libyan Government in its stated efforts to motivate companies to embark on a TQM program and improve their business performance which, in turn, will improve the Libyan economy.