The 4D model of place brand management
Place branding is receiving increased practitioner and academic attention. While the need and benefits are becoming more widely accepted, there is uncertainty as to the application of brand principles to places. Both the similarities and differences between corporate brands and place brands have been given attention in the literature with the consensus being that place branding is more complex. This work identifies some of the issues and processes relative to place brand management. While not purporting to be a definitive model of place branding, a model consisting of four sequential stages is proposed. The 4D model consists of the stages of deciding, designing, delivering, and determining and is supported by relevant literature and examples from the United Arab Emirates. It is anticipated that the model will contribute to academic work and as well be of benefit to practitioners charged with place branding.