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The study of the synchronization of processes is a very interesting field. It-brings together concepts that have originated in the design of operating systems, and of high level programming languages. Also it is becoming clear that the design of algorithms for parallel execution is intimately connected with synchronization problems. Some specialized synchronization problems have arisen in the design of data base systems. Indeed, distributed data bases provide an example of distributed processing that has immense practical significance. To summarize, synchronization of processes is a universal activity whose importance is being felt throughout computer science. The time has therefore come for the synchronization of processes to be studied as a topic in its own right. In this course I am taking such a broad viewpoint, and am trying to integrate some aspects of operating systems, languages, and parallel algorithms. However, this being a first attempt, the integration is not as thorough as I would have wished. Also, in the short time at my disposal, I am not able to discuss several very important topics, such as reliability.