Sanidas, E., Organizational Innovations of Firms From the 1850s in the USA and Japan, Department of Economics, University of Wollongong, 2002.
Organizational Innovations (OIs) are defined as disembodied technology as against embodied technology or technical (technological) innovations. The firms, as we see them today in the USA, Japan and many other countries, are organized according to OIs that took place in the USA and Japan in the last 150 years or so. A historical review during that period will identify OIs in these two countries. OIs such as integration of production and distribution, focal factories, and just-intime cum quality control (JIT/QC) are more thoroughly described.