The −1p/−19q genotype predicts chemosensitivity in oligodendroglial neoplasms, but some with intact 1p/19q also respond and not all with 1p/19q loss derive durable benefit from chemotherapy. We have evaluated the predictive and prognostic significance of pretherapy 201Tl and 18F-FDG SPECT and genotype in 38 primary and 10 recurrent oligodendroglial neoplasms following PCV chemotherapy. 1p/19q loss was seen in 8/15 OII, 6/15 OAII, 7/7 OIII, 3/11 OAIII and was associated with response (Fisher-Exact: P=0.000) and prolonged progression-free (log-rank: P=0.002) and overall survival (OS) (log-rank: P=0.0048). Response was unrelated to metabolism, with tumours with high or low metabolism showing response. Increased 18F-FDG or 201Tl uptake predicted shorter progression-free survival (PFS) in the series (log-rank: 201Tl P=0.0097, 18F-FDG P=0.0170) and in cases with or without the −1p/−19q genotype. Elevated metabolism was associated with shorter OS in cases with intact 1p/19q (log-rank: 18F-FDG P=0.0077; 201Tl P=0.0004) and shorter PFS in responders (log-rank: 18F-FDG P=0.005; 201Tl P=0.0132). 201Tl uptake and 1p/19q loss were independent predictors of survival in multivariate analysis. In this initial study, 201Tl and 18F-FDG uptake did not predict response to PCV, but may be associated with poor survival following therapy irrespective of genotype. This may be clinically useful warranting further study.