Rock bolting has advanced rapidly during the past four decades due to a better understanding of load transfer mechanisms and advances made in the bolt system technology. Bolts are used as permanent and temporary support systems in tunnelling and mining operations. A review of reinforcement devices has indicated that three classes have evolved as part of rockbolt and ground anchor while the rock is not generally thought of as being a component of the reinforcement system. A classification of rockbolting reinforcement systems is presented, followed by the fundamental theory of the load transfer mechanism. Finally, various failure modes of rockbolting systems are discussed.