Why are migrants' not participating in welfare programs? Evidence from Shanghai, China
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In recent years, Chinese cities have attempted to extend urban welfare provisions to migrants, but migrants' participation in such programs is relatively low. This paper examines migrant welfare participation in Shanghai and its association with personal characteristics, institutional factors, the labor market, attitudes about welfare programs and settlement intention. Except for hukou status, knowledge about policies and settlement intention, all the other factors help explain migrant nonparticipation in welfare programs. Comparing welfare participation among three subroups of migrants - the included, partially included and the transition group - explains the selection mechanisms for integrating migrants in welfare programs. Shanghai appears to be more welcoming of migrants who are female, with higher education, have better employment and greater trust in government impartiality.