Job embeddedness in Japanese organizations
In contrast to the vast literature on voluntary turnover, the job embeddedness theory describes why individuals choose to stay in their organizations. Because this theory has been developed and validated mainly in the USA, this study explores its applicability and functioning in Japanese organizations through 110 interviews with managers, employees and executive-search consultants. While the original theory provides a useful framework to explain the web of forces that embed people to their organizations, a distinctive set of cultural and institutional factors affected job embeddedness in Japanese organizations. In particular, on-the-job ties and sacrifices were important job embeddedness dimensions in Japanese organizations.