The Institut fur Socialforschung was set up at Frankfurt- am-Main in 1923. Horkheimer, whose father endowed it, became director in 1930, and continued in exile after 1933, in France, and then in the United States. The Institute closed in 1941, with some members returning to Germany, and others, notably Fromm and Marcuse, remaining in the USA). Adorno and Horkheimer re-established the School at Frankfurt in 1950. Habermas (now at the Max Planck Institute) came in at that stage. Adorno died in 1969; Horkheimer is still alive. These three all moved to a conservative position, especially after the 1968 student revolts, which they denounced.
Recommended CitationSinclair, John, Critical Theory, Australian Left Review, 1(38), 1972, 3-8.