Publication Details

Vestgarden, J. I., Mikheenko, P., Galperin, Y. M. and Johansen, T. (2013). Nonlocal electrodynamics of normal and superconducting films. New Journal Of Physics, 15 (093001),


Electrically conducting films in a time-varying transverse applied magnetic field are considered. Their behavior is strongly influenced by the self-field of the induced currents, making the electrodynamics nonlocal, and consequently difficult to analyze both numerically and analytically. We present a formalism which allows many phenomena related to superconducting and Ohmic films to be modeled and analyzed. The formalism is based on the Maxwell equations and a material current-voltage characteristics, linear for normal metals and nonlinear for superconductors, plus a careful account of the boundary conditions. For Ohmic films, we consider the response to a delta function source-field turned on instantly. As one of few problems in nonlocal electrodynamics, this has an analytical solution, which we obtain in both Fourier and real space. Next, the dynamical behavior of a square superconductor film during ramping up of the field, and subsequently returning to zero, is treated numerically. Then, this remanent state is used as initial condition for triggering thermomagnetic avalanches. The avalanches tend to invade the central part where the density of trapped flux is largest, forming dendritic patterns in excellent agreement with magneto-optical images. Detailed profiles of current and flux density are presented and discussed. Finally, the formalism is extended to multiply connected samples, and numerical results for a patterned superconducting film, a ring with a square lattice of antidots, are presented and discussed



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