Pacemakers and bionic ears (cochlear implants) (1) were the first medical bionic devices to be used successfully in humans. On the horizon there is the prospect of a neural prosthesis capable of operating prosthetic limbs (2), a bionic eye (3), as well as other devices for the restoration of body function. These developments are crucially dependent on successfully connecting the device to cellular tissue. The development of organic polymer conductors is contributing to achieving that success.
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