The electromechanical properties of -oriented tetragonal Pb(In1/2Nb1/2O3)-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3O3)-PbTiO3 (PIN-PMN-PT) crystals were investigated for potential high frequency ultrasonic transducers. The domain-engineered tetragonal crystals exhibit an ultrahigh free dielectric permittivity ε33 T > 10 000 with a moderate electromechanical coupling factor k33 ∼ 0.79, leading to a high clamped dielectric permittivity ε33 S of 2800, significantly higher than those of the rhombohedral relaxor-PT crystals and high-K (dielectric permittivity) piezoelectric ceramics. Of particular significance is that the -oriented tetragonal crystals were found to possess high elastic stiffness, with frequency constant N33 of ∼2400 Hz m, allowing relatively easy fabrication of high-frequency transducers. In addition, no scaling effect of piezoelectric and dielectric properties was observed down to thickness of 0.1 mm, corresponding to an operational frequency of ∼24 MHz. These advantages of -oriented tetragonal PIN-PMN-PT crystals will benefit high-frequency ultrasonic array transducers, allowing for high sensitivity, broad bandwidth, and reduced noise/crosstalk.
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