Recent progress in flexible electrochemical capacitors: electrode materials, device configuration, and functions
With increasing demand for portable, flexible, and even wearable electronic devices, flexible energy storage systems have received increasing attention as a key component in this emerging field. Among the options, supercapacitors, commonly referred to as ultracapacitors or electrochemical capacitors, are widely recognized as a potential energy storage system due to their high power, fast charge/discharge rate, long cycling life-time, and low cost. To date, considerable effort has been dedicated to developing high-performance flexible supercapacitors based on various electrode materials; including carbon nanomaterials (e.g., carbon nanotubes, graphene, porous carbon materials, carbon paper, and textile), conducting polymers (e.g., polyaniline, polypyrrole, polythiophene), and hybrid materials. A brief introduction to the field is provided and the state-of-the-art is reviewed with special emphasis on electrode materials and device configurations.