LiMn2O4 cathode materials synthesized by the cellulose-citric acid method for lithium ion batteries
A new technique was employed to synthesize spinel LiMn2O4 cathode materials by adding cellulose and citric acid to an aqueous solution of lithium and manganese salts. Various synthesis conditions such as the calcination temperature and the citric acid-to-metal ion molar ratio (R) were investigated to determine the ideal conditions for preparing LiMn2O4 with the best electrochemical characteristics. The optimal synthesis conditions were found to be R = 1/3 and a calcination temperature of 800 °C. The initial discharge capacity of the material synthesized using the optimal conditions was 134 mAh g−1, and the discharge capacity after 40 cycles was 125 mAh g−1, at a current density of 0.15 mA cm−2 between 3.0 and 4.35 V. Details of how the initial synthesis conditions affected the capacity and cycling performance of LiMn2O4 are discussed.