We speak about genetic modification when one or more genes (DNA-molecules with a certain function within the cell or organism) or combinations of DNA-molecules (so-called gene-constructs) are introduced into the animal involved. One method which is often used is that the DNA-molecules are injected with a very fine needle in the fertilized egg. We speak about transgenic animals when the genes come from a different species. This method may be used for different purposes: to increase production in animal husbandry, to make animals resistant to diseases, or to change animals in such a way that they produce certain medically useful products in their milk. Once the genetically modified animals are developed they may also be multiplied by cloning techniques.



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