The NSW Department of Health is establishing a four year program to provide grants to fund and evaluate demonstration projects that aim to prevent injury among Aboriginal people, as part of the NSW implementation plan for the National Partnership Agreement on Closing the Gap in Indigenous Health Outcomes. NSW Health has engaged the Sax Institute to assist in designing and implementing this project. The Sax Institute will consult with a Reference Group and Aboriginal communities to set priorities, with the following decisions to be made: This is one of three reviews subsequently commissioned to inform the program. It reviews peer-review and grey literature evaluations of the effectiveness of Australian Indigenous initiatives published 1995-2010 to answer the following questions with specific terms of reference provided: What are the most effective strategies/projects/programs that have been implemented for the prevention of injury amongst Aboriginal populations? What types and causes of injury have successfully been addressed by these strategies? What types and causes of injury have not been successfully addressed (or addressed at all) by these strategies? What are elements that contribute to success or failure in such strategies?